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Chapter 1 Universal Testing Methods pages 1 8 400px

Topics covered

  • where to get service information
  • questioning a customer and verifying a complaint
  • freeze frame data
  • fuel trim
  • oxygen sensor signals (rich and lean signals)
  • fuel map
  • verifying a fix by using fuel trim
  • using an oxygen sensor for low power complaints
  • lean conditions at idle compared to under load
 

CHAPTER 1 UNIVERSAL TESTING METHODS PAGES 9 13 400

Topics covered

  • vacuum leak testing without a smoke machine
  • why a MAF engine idles low and a MAP engine idles high with a vacuum leak
  • how to use fuel trim and IAC valve position to determine if there is a vacuum leak
  • how to locate the area of a vacuum leak with water
  • how to test for an internal vacuum leak
  • misfire diagnostics
  • how to use misfire counters
  • using mode 6 on a Ford to find a misfire
  • cylinder drop/rpm drop test
  • finding intermittent secondary ignition problems
  • how to find a bad head gasket with a gas analyzer
 

Chapter 1 Universal Testing Methods pages 13 22 400

Topics covered

  • misfire diagnostics with a scope
  • common secondary ignition waveform faults
  • common primary ignition waveform faults
  • relative compression testing
  • how to find a jumped timing belt or chain with a scope
  • basic operation of a waste spark ignition system
  • 2, 3 and 4 pin ignition coil designs and how to sync from them
 

CHAPTER 1 UNIVERSAL TESTING METHODS PAGES 23 25 400

Topics covered

  • multimeter basics
  • voltage, current and resistance measurements
  • advantages and disadvantages of each tool
  • why an ohmmeter can get you in trouble
  • difference in potential
  • average reading voltmeter compared to a scope
  • review of no crank Nissan video with bad block ground
  • how to read multi-meter scales
 

RESEARCH WIRING DIAGRAMS FLOW CHARTS SUCK PG 3 EXPANDED CONTENT 400

Topics covered

  • research (do your homework)
  • where I get my wiring diagrams
  • where to find flow charts
  • why we use flow charts as a guide only
  • "flow charts suck!"

 

 

OPERATION OF AN OXYGEN SENSOR PART 1 PG 4 EXPANDED CONTENT 400px

Topics covered

  • fuel trim (is the engine running rich or lean)
  • oxygen sensor operation (does it sense oxygen or fuel?)
  • "the tomato sensor" (courtesy of my friends at iATN.net)
Disclaimer:

I am still not an expert on this topic and this is my first time at trying to explain it this way. I am sure some of my assumptions still need to be refined, but this topic will really help explain how an oxygen sensor reacts to a no fuel misfire, compared to an ignition misfire. Also, why a stuck open EGR will not cause a rich condition on a MAF engine.

OPERATION OF AN OXYGEN SENSOR PART 2 PG 5 EXPANDED CONTENT 400

Topics covered

  • continued operation of the oxygen sensor
  • oxygen sensor contamination
  • EGR flow effect on the oxygen sensor
  • introduction to airflow measurement systems (MAP vs MAF)
  • why a MAP engine runs rich with a stuck open EGR
  • why a MAF engine runs lean with a stuck open EGR
  • STFT and LTFT
 
Fuel trim at different loads O2 at WOT pg 4 8 expanded content 400

Topics covered

  • fuel trim at different loads to ID type of lean condition
  • oxygen sensor wide open throttle test for low power conditions
  • what is a data PID?
 
VACUUM LEAK TESTING PG 9 EXPANDED CONTENT 400

Topics covered

  • why does a vacuum leak cause some engines to idle high, while other idles low? (MAP vs MAF engines)
  • computer response to vacuum leaks: fuel trims, O2 response, IAC position or command
  • relevant data PIDs for suspected vacuum leaks
  • vacuum leak pinpoint testing with water and fuel
  • freeze frame data to ID types of lean conditions
  • DTC's related to vacuum leaks
  • types of vacuum leaks: external, internal, brake booster
 
MISFIRE DIAGNOSTICS PG 13 EXPANDED CONTENT 400

Topics covered

  • review of Dodge Neon video with an intake runner vacuum leak
  • water test to locate a vacuum leak
  • cylinder drop or rpm drop test
  • what test light to use when performing a cylinder drop test
  • cranking sound test to identify a low compression cylinder
 
CHECKING FOR HEAD GASKET FAILURES PG 13 EXPANDED CONTENT 400

Topics covered

  • using a gas analyzer to find a bad head gasket
  • combustion leak detector (chemical kit)
  • dipstick test for a head-gasket failure
 
IGNITION COIL OPERATION INTERPRETING SECONDARY IGNITION WAVEFORMS PG 13 EXPANDED CONTENT 400

You certainly cannot understand a secondary ignition waveform if you do not understand how an ignition coil works. How do we make 12v turn into 40,000 volts?

Topics covered

  • scope hook up (distributer engine)
  • mutual Induction
  • relationship between primary ignition system and secondary ignition system
  • characteristics of secondary patterns (firing line, spark line, burn time)
  • ignition dwell time (what is it, why do we care?)
  • coil saturation
  • how voltage is created with a magnet
  • coil current limiting
  • reserve coil oscillations
  • what a lean misfire looks like
 
SECONDARY IGNITION WAVEFORMS C.O.P. WASTE SPARK SYSTEMS PG 13 14 EXPANDED CONTENT 400

Topics covered

  • scope hook up (COP and waste spark design)
  • mutual Induction
  • testing conditions, at idle, snap-throttle
  • waste spark companion cylinder variables
  • effects of compression on a firing line
  • why it matters where you connect your leads on a plug wire
 
WASTE SPARK COIL ONLY FIRES ON ONE SIDE PG 16 EXPANDED CONTENT 400

In this lecture we will be reviewing how a waste spark ignition coil can have spark on only one side. Also the operation and testing of an ignition coil is covered as well as coil current ramping.

Topics covered

  • operation of a transistor
  • how an ignition coil works and the resulting waveforms
  • how can only one side of a waste spark coil not have spark
  • how a waste spark ignition coil is wired on a Ford
  • mutual and self-induction
  • what determines the polarity of an ignition coil
  • coil current ramp testing (starts at 29 min)
  • counter electromotive force
  • turn on oscillations of a coil primary current waveform
 
PRIMARY IGNITION COIL CURRENT WAVEFORM VARIABLES PG 16 EXPANDED CONTENT 400

Topics covered

  • primary ignition current ramps (distributor, waste spark and COP designs)
  • use of inductive amp probe
  • relationship of voltage and amperage in series circuit
  • counter electromotive force (CEMF)
  • primary current ramp variables (crushed spark plug on a Ford)
 
RELATIVE COMPRESSION TESTING VARIABLES PG 21 EXPANDED CONTENT 400

Topics covered

  • connecting an amp probe
  • verify mechanical health of the engine
  • verify engine timing with relative compression
  • verify engine timing with in cylinder pressure transducer
  • cmp and ckp signal variations
  • determine degrees of engine rotation using sensor signals
 
VOLTAGE DROPS NO SPECIAL TOOL NEEDED OHMMETERS SUCK PG 25 EXPANDED CONTENT 400 jpg

Topics covered

  • why you do not need a "special tool" to find resistance problems in a circuit
  • multimeter basics
  • testing voltage (importance of a loaded circuit)
  • voltage drop vs ohm meter testing (why the ohmmeter is not an accurate tool for high amperage circuits)
  • proper circuit ground testing
 
NO CRANK BAD BLOCK GROUND REVIEW MULTIMETER BASICS PG 23 26 EXPANDED CONTENT 400

Topics covered

  • bad block ground no crank case study review
  • loaded circuit testing
  • why a voltmeter reads an average
  • symptoms of a bad ground
  • starter circuit and block ground testing
  • resistance testing: open circuit, short to ground
  • ohmmeter reading
  • amperage testing
  • dangers of an ammeter
 
Alternator diode testing pg 26 27 expanded content 400

Topics covered

  • how a battery charger can cause a no start
  • effects of low voltage on a computer system
  • AC ripple test (alternator diode test)
  • how to AC couple an scope and why it is important
  • acceptable AC voltage levels in a DC system
 
IN CYLINDER PRESSURE TESTING FOR A RESTRICTED EXHAUST PG 28 EXPANDED CONTENT 400

Topics covered

  • measuring in-cylinder pressure with a Picoscope and pressure transducer to determine an exhaust restriction
  • variables that can occur with a dual cat system
  • variables that can occur with different exhaust pipe lengths
  • other methods of identifying an exhaust restriction
 

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